API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.
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Duty holders must demonstrate that structures have sufficient robustness to xpi a low probability of catastrophic failure when subjected to accidental explosions. The purpose of these recommended practices is to provide information that can serve as a voluntary industry guide for safe well control operations.
The failure history of large ocean going vessels is a significant cause of concern in the shipping industry. Introduction Industrial scale fire, explosion and environmental pollution from the production, refining, and distribution of petroleum remains one of the major concerns impacting human life and environment, incurring business losses and jeopardizing organizational reputation.
Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 1: These have been shown to act as stress raisers and potential failure sources, even at low pressures. Full scale tests on realistic modules and congestion confinement levels carried out on joint industry projects have xpi that the severity of the threat is more severe and 2cb than originally envisaged. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Background Prior to ap Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion was mainly confined to constructing blast walls in the well bay area.
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This publication serves as a guide for those who are concerned with the design and construction of new platforms and for the relocation of existing platforms used for the drilling, development, and storage of hyd The most prominent leak scenarios for the study were considered as a part of the simplified approach in lieu of considering exhaustive scenario combinations based on different leak sizes, weather parameters, leak directions, etc.
This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of r; structures against fire and blast loading. Ongoing operational safety shall be demonstrated by appropriate design capacity in conjunction with an appropriate integrity management system to ensure degradation is kept within acceptable limits.
The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite 2cb method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics. This recommended practice is intended to assist in development of a management program designed to promote safety and environmental protection during the performance of offshore oil and gas and sulphur operations. Proceedings of an international conference Subsea Controls and Data Acquisition ‘ A fire and zpi information group was subsequently established through which a number of important technical notes have been published.
The measures for frequency and severity level are normally based on the size of the inventory and complexity of the process, the level of congestion and confinement and the staffing level of the installation. Advanced search Show search help.
In some cases this can lead to 2db the low ro high consequence events. Also the option of minimising congested areas by splitting up the processing into smaller units and introducing sufficient r between the units is unlikely due to space constraints and economics. This is of relevance to the offshore sector in relationship to FPSO’s where potentially larger gas cloud sizes could form due to space constraints. Post Piper, several bars of pressure were found to be a real possibility with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.
The performance standard required for these elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just the blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the response of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated with the verification scheme for the installation.
The advantages of adopting this methodology based on SRA approach are deemed to be well-suited for bidding phase, where the time and cost of rpp out detailed risk analysis is not feasible.
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The method relies on a kinematic similarity between the actual and idealised spring mass, which for a beam simply means the velocity and displacement of the spring mass corresponds to a point on the beam which best describes the global behaviour. Older platforms may also have higher frequency of releases as a result of ageing which will increase the likelihood of leaks due to corrosion ro fatigue issues.
This method is often described as simple because of the simplicity of the idealisation and the fact you can obtain a response time history using a spreadsheet hence conducting parametric studies which are useful for screening different pressure time histories. The potential for an accidental release of a hydrocarbon mixture is ever present on hydrocarbon carrying installations 2fn, if 2fg, could lead to a serious incident involving loss of life, loss of the asset and environmental damage.
Much of this data is currently being harmonised through ISO to a set of appropriate criteria. Little consideration had therefore been given to explosion scenarios on many older fixed structures. Subsequently, frequency analysis was conducted using parts count methodology to cumulate the frequency of fire scenarios. Health and Safety Executive Report, Prior to the Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion was mainly confined to spi blast walls in the well tp area.
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More emphasis on requirements for providing inherent safety is now required. Limiting a potential gas cloud size is an important issue in the design phase as well as keeping the design pressures inherently lower generally through design to minimise the effects of an explosion and fire is a key component on an FPSO facility.
Proceedings of an international conference Diverless and Deepwater Techology: International Journal of Impact EngineeringAip.
Structural behaviour under explosion hazards
Projects with accelerated engineering, procurement, and construction EPC schedules are becoming common 2vb the oil and gas industry with Oil Majors keen on quick and guaranteed returns on investment. Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that significantly higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.
This RP presents recommendations for minimizing the likelihood of having an accidental fire, and for designing, inspecting, and maintaining fire control systems. Robustness of the integrity should be measured against the resilience of the structure to resist these loads with suitable margins to cater for the uncertainties in the load estimation, the modelling schem chosen, and the material properties of the materials used.
Although an incident of the same magnitude as Piper Alpha has been avoided, there have been fires and explosions which could potentially have led to fp catastrophic events. Remedial actions Retrofit of barriers usually blast walls to existing installations plays a major part in reducing the risk and achieving ALARP criteria for accidental explosion events.
This policy should have no impact for new installations as designs should incorporate the required regulatory and technical principles.
Other valuable documents include the Norsok standards and the R JIP project which resulted in the publication of an important handbook. Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points.
Risk level Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that significantly higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.