Army Alpha Examination; U.S. Army Alpha Intelligence Test The Army Alpha [5] was developed shortly after the United States entered World War I by an. Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence testing were crucial in assessing and classifying individual soldiers during World War I. This testing. The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher correlation for the latter group.

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Revising the Test

Although intelwgence efficiency report form went through a number of versions between the late s andit retained the basic alppha of the version, which began with a summary page asking for assessments in nine areas, including “Capacity for command,” “Professional zeal, etc.

For each, there is a relatively complete run of their year-by-year efficiency reports from the time they entered the service up to He then, under military discipline, follows directions to the best of his ability.

Testimony by other officers can also be found in this file. Rather, Yerkes found himself constantly struggling to convince both company commanders and members of the higher echelons that his tests pro- vided information pertinent to their immediate concerns.

ASVAB | Sample Army Alpha/Beta Questions

The arm of “D-” and “E” men are below ten years in ” mental age “. He also had the ratings assigned to each 51 See Frederick P. General, ; Agencies and Departments: In part, Yerkes’s problems derived from the very organization of the army.

The original purposes of the committee in preparing methods for intelligence testing were less important than the uses made of the results. Learning For Work Chapter 4: There were even criticisms when the test was originally accepted to be used.

In addition, and more importantly, the ambivalent reaction to the army testing wlpha can be traced to the range of responses it elicited inteleegnce members of the officer corps. These studies constituted the first extensive investigations of military psychology by individuals outside the Surgeon General’s Office, and the degree to which Dorr and Burt concurred in their findings is notable.

The average man of many nations is a moron. Yerkes and Yoakum wrote, “When psychological examining was originally accepted by the Medical Department for Official trial, there was extreme and widely prevalent skepticism even among psychologists themselves concerning the reliability of the measurements of intelligence which could be secured and still more alpua their practical value to the Army”.

The Army Alpha is a group-administered test developed by Robert Yerkes and six others in order to evaluate the many U.

Pioneer in Psycho- logical Testing New York: The distribution of intelligence ratings in typical army groups, showing the value of the tests in the identification of officer material.


Adjutant General’s Office, Personnel System cit. Making Visual Meanings Chapter Press Kentucky, ; Edward M.

Through the efforts of the army’s Committee on Classification tesst Personnel, headed by psychologist Walter Dill Scott of the Carnegie Institute armh Technology, new efficiency report forms were developed that mandated numerical ratings in five separate areas: And both noted that, in general, officers found a high correspondence between their own evaluations of their men and the results generated by the psychological exam- inations.

Giving synonyms or antonyms: On 28 April the psychological examining of enlisted men, officer training candidates, and line officers began in earnest.

While army officials were never completely convinced of the value of these tests, Terman, Goddard, and Yerkes had no doubts about their importance. Yerkes,” penciled date of 30 Maybut which may refer to a meeting mentioned in Yerkes’s War Diary as taking place on 1 May; all in file: Shipp, his brigade commander remarked that “while probably lacking the vision ever to become a brilliant officer Weekly Diary, folderbox 91, Yerkes Papers.

Army Alpha

The norms for IQ are derived from a comparison of the percentile norms with those offered by Terman and Merrill for the distribution of IQ’s in the American white population”. Psy- chologists thus could not simply impose their knowledge on the military; tfst, they had to persuade various members of the officer corps that psychological conceptions of “intelligence” were either better than or at least the same as military notions. Amazon WorldCat Previous Chapter 6: In America, it was the spread during the late nineteenth and early twen- tieth centuries, especially among the educated and cultural elite, of the scientistic culture known as Progressivism, often heavily tinged with eugenical ideas, that en- gendered and embodied this transformation.

How do both tests create the impression of scientific objectivity?

First, many be- lieved that intelligence tests were not necessary, that there rest sufficient oppor- tunities to observe one’s subordinates during the early days of training camp for time- honored ary methods of evaluation and placement to be practical.

Learning Communities at Work Chapter In intslegence process of making that assessment, psychologists were forced to adopt military cri- teria of success as one of the benchmarks against which to calibrate their instruments. Thorndike had long believed in the composite, heterogeneous character of intelligence, and thus he argued that each context demanded its own measure of mental ability. For the next three months psychological examining contin- ued, most probably with Army a, at the relatively slow pace of about 14, recruits per month while new forms were getting printed, psychological examiners were being 44 Yerkes to Thorndike, intlegence Apr.

His stoutness has never interfered with his ‘hiking’ qualities that I know of. Listen, and when I say a word you tell me what it means” intelegsnce “You see this box; it has two smaller boxes inside of it, and each one of the smaller boxes contains a little tiny box. Reconceiving the examina- tion entirely, the committee decided to develop multiple forms of a forty-five-minute multiple-choice group examination, to be administered to all recruits for the purpose of identifying the exceptionally superior as well as the inferior.


Help Center Find new research papers in: Whereas officers had been able to rely on intimate 11 See, e.

Army Alpha – Wikipedia

It would, of course, be splendid to have President Wilson acquainted with our work, but it seems to me especially important that the Secretary of War and his Chief of Staff, who have ordered millions of their fellow men to take these tests, should have reliable first hand knowledge of them”: Their dullness seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come.

In any psychological aptitude test, the person scoring the test has to take into consideration any error that the examinee will possibly make while taking the test.

If it correlates highly it deserves much weight. Atwell did a small study on the relationship of scores and errors based on the results of administration of the “Army Alpha”.

The Alpha version of the test was intended for draftees who could read English. Different groups of psychologists, as we have seen, resolved them in different ways, but neither Thorndike’s group nor Yoakum’s was able to escape entirely the constraints of having to meet the demands of dual audiences. Thus, this episode may offer insight into the problem of why the efflorescence of psychology and many other human sciences occurred at the end of the nineteenth century, when throughout the West the accelerated forces of urbanization had both transformed the realities of, and stripped away many of the illusions about, the small-town nature of social life.

They are of high officer type when they are also endowed with leadership and other necessary qualities. The result was a constant ebb and flow, in which both the psychologists and the military oscillated between accommodating and resisting change in the process of negotiating a modus vivendi acceptable to both and a domain of knowledge that both could deem valid and useful. Press, ; Peter Dear, “Totius in Verba: Because the sources of authority that mental testers used among themselves to au- thenticate their ideas about “intelligence” had little direct relevance to military cul- ture, it was psychological knowledge that for the most part had to be adapted to military canons of validity, and even this could be accomplished only partially, at least from the standpoint of the psychologists.