The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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How can we ensure that raters apply the scoring standards consistently?
Conventions of language voice, tone, style, accuracy, mechanics are important as well, but frequently these are seen as secondary matters, to be ad- dressed after matters of content and organization. A typical writing test – in which examinees must write a timed impromptu essay on a topic about which they have no advance knowledge – is relatively inauthentic in at least four ways.
As an example, we can return to the example of writing a letter to the editor.
I have found this book a superb place to start researching a theis on writing assessment. Writing is one of the central skills a student must master.
Assessing Writing by Sara Cushing Weigle
It is important to remember, as Alderson notes, that constructs are not so much ‘psy- chologically real entities that exist in our heads,’ For the purposes of this book, it is important to be aware of these issues because the social context of writing influences, among other things, the choice of genre and task in writing assessment.
It meant that I had to create an English self and be that self. Presumably, this may have the salutary effect of better preparing potential international students to study at North American universi- ties, where writing is seen as essential to academic success.
As Grabe and Kaplan note, Bereiter and Scardamalia’s two- The nature of writing ability 35 model process has much to recommend it. Betty Hawk marked it as to-read Mar 27, The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics.
They serve as text grammarians for one another, raising questions when some needed element of a discourse has been omitted. An example of this type of writing would be a laboratory report. Since writing tasks are fre- quently based on source texts, there is an obvious relationship between the ability to understand the source text and the ability to use information from the text in one’s writing. However, it is important to know something about characteristics such as age, sex, and educa- tional background so that we can develop tasks that are appropriate for the specific test takers and to avoid biasing test tasks either in favor of or against test takers who have certain characteristics.
Knowledge of organizing schemes top-level discourse structure G. The relationship between one’s desire to integrate into the new culture and one’s success in learning a second language has been explored by re- searchers such as Gardner and LambertSchumannand, more recently, Peircewho notes that investment in the target culture may depend on a belief that there will eventually be a return on that investment.
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As the figure shows, the writer uses a mental representa- tion of the writing assignment to call up both content knowledge what is known about the topic xara a schema for the type of dis- course required by the assignment e.
Basic considerations in assessing writing 53 Bachman and Palmer define interactiveness as ‘the extent and type of involvement of the test taker’s individual characteristics in accomplishing a test task’ p.
Reliability wtiting a test of writing can be affected by several factors, including variables related to the writing task itself e. While this categorization was intended originally for school writing, it may be useful to return to the assewsing groups of second-language writers described above and map their typical writing needs onto this grid see Table 1. The first two groups – children being schooled in their second language – will need any or all of these writing types, depending on their level of schooling and the specific demands of the Introduction 11 Table 1.
Inferences about achievement are also used on a program-wide or even state or national levels to make decisions about curriculum and funding for assesskng. In parti- cular, I would like to thank Maria Ines Valsecchi and John Bunting for their comments and especially for their enthusiasm about the book at xii Acknowledgements xiii a time when I cushjng having my doubts about ever finishing it.
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Like the second group, this third group is generally well educated; unlike the second group, however, they may not have as great a need to write in their second language, and Introduction 7 certainly the writing that they will do is less complex and demanding than that of the second group. Similarly, students who experience failure tend to work harder if they believe that success is due to effort, while they tend to give up and work less if they believe cushinng success is due to innate abilities.
This point is brought up asswssing later in this chapter. What are the saraa processes, or mental activities, involved in writing? As a result, the ability to speak and write a second language is becoming widely recognized as an important skill for educational, business, and personal reasons.
Assessing Writing – Sara Cushing Weigle – Google Books
Purpose, Process, and Assesslng Dana R. Miss Moka marked it as to-read Jan 30, However, it is important to view writing not solely as the product of an individual, but as a social and cultural act. From this perspective, learning to write involves much more than simply learning the grammar and vocabulary of the language, or even the rhetorical forms common to academic writing. Open Preview See a Problem? Gilvania added it Dec 01, A formal aeigle of students writing abilities is important for language teachers in order to assess the pedagogical needs of their students.
Performance assessments thus differ from traditional paper-and- pencil tests in the degree to which they represent or simulate behavior in the real world.