ósea mediante el método de Greulich y Pyle y correlacionarlo . comparing the radiograph with the pattern presented in the atlas elaborated. Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist: Medicine by William Walter Greulich (Author), S. Idell Pyle ( Author). However, this atlas has been criticised for being applied to foreign Keywords: Age estimation, forensic anthropology, Greulich and Pyle, hand-wrist, Cameriere R, De Luca S, Biagi R, Cingolani M, Farronato G, Ferrante.

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Oyle younger individuals, the maximum under-age is 15 months for both females and males and the maximum over-age is 14 months for females and 10 months for males.

The edition of the Greulich and Pyle atlas has separate standards for males and females: It should be noted that a large dependence on agriculture means that there is an increase in migrant workers on a seasonal basis.


An understanding of the reliability and validity of a method to the population that it is being applied is vital in these circumstances. Rontgenatlas der normalen hand im kindesalter. Children with a major childhood illness lasting more than 3 months or height above 95 th percentile for age or height below 5 th percentile for age were excluded from the study.

Am J Hum Genet. All of the editions of the Greulich and Pyle atlas are based on data collected between and during the Brush Study 57 It is not possible for health reasons to recreate a longitudinal study of the type which provided the data which underpin the Greulich and Pyle atlas; therefore, it is necessary to understand the reliability and accuracy of this system of age estimation in living individuals.

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The age estimation of those who are unable or unwilling to prove their age, or who may not know their age, has become increasingly common, especially at geographical borders where there is regular movement of people 13 The Greulich—Pyle GP atlas is one of the most frequently used methods for the assessment of skeletal age around the world. A new system for estimating skeletal maturity from the hand and wrist with standards derived from greuilch study of healthy British children.

Differences in the time of development of centres of ossification in the male and female skeleton. Delay in skeletal maturity pype Malawian children. Atlas of skeletal maturation.

The Reliability of the Greulich and Pyle Atlas When Applied to a Modern Scottish Population

The impact of economic progress and modernization in medicine on the ossification of hand and wrist. Find articles by Anwar Ahmed.

For the females, prior to the age of 9 years, there is a mixed pattern of under- and over-aging, although for the majority of groups for which there were data the trend was to over-age by between 1. These differences between the CA and estimated SA were statistically significant in all age groups.

Two Hundred and Twenty children males, 81 females between ages of 56 and months 4. Chronological age was calculated by the difference between date of birth and the date that the image was taken.

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J Pak Med Assoc. The population studied here showed a pattern of under-estimating the age of males prior to puberty 13 years and over-aging after puberty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of Greulich and Pyle GP method for Southern Turkish population. In Australia, bone ages of males are on average advanced by 0.


Pak J Med Sci. This study therefore supports the use of the Greulich and Pyle atlas when age estimating a child from this population as long as the differences highlighted in this study are taken into account.

While the effects of this scrutiny are still embryonic, it has resulted in the questioning of the reliability of conclusions drawn by the application of forensic methodologies.

Forensic age estimation and ethnicity. Skeletal development of the hand and wrist in Finnish children. However, serial measurements of bone age by this atlas can be used in management of growth related endocrine disorders in these children. The degree of disparity between the two ages is less in females, with mean differences ranging from 4. The process for development of the atlas followed a set formula. An estimation of age was undertaken for each of the radiographs using the Greulich and Pyle atlas 5.

Results Both the chronological ages and estimated ages were translated from years into months for the purposes of statistical analysis. Wiliam Walter Greulich and Dr. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.