Boletín chileno de ornitología. Type: journal. DDC: ISSN(s): Publisher:: Santiago. Appears: print. ID: PERI:(DE) Get this from a library! Boletín chileno de ornitología. [Unión de Ornitólogos de Chile.;]. Manuscript received on 30 July , accepted on 18 November Boletín Chileno de Ornitología 21 (): Unión de Ornitólogos de Chile

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Eight species of falcons Falconidae have been recorded in Chile.

Boletín chileno de ornitología – RWTH Publications

To date, all relevant studies considered birds of prey in general, with no specific focus on this family. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, an updated report is presented on the state of knowledge of falcons in Chile.

This data set comprises a total of studies published from to Scientific productivity was lowest in and highest inwith a steady increase since However, the focus of research in Chile is biased towards two species: Milvago chimango and Falco sparverius. Faunistic studies including abundance orntologia the most common ornktologia topic. It is suggested that the lack of knowledge regarding species in the genus Phalcoboenus may negatively affect the conservation status of these species, and believed that the lack of preference for certain research topics, such as systematics and natural history, are the result of historical factors including the decrease of field biology and perhaps a biased interest of the researchers.

Finally, this review highlights the paucity of information on falcons and provides a framework for directing future research. Falcons are considered good indicators of ecological and environmental health Rau and Jaksicas are other birds of prey Pfeiffer and Meyburg They fulfil an important role maintaining control over plague species and regulating the ecosystem Rau The 64 species are grouped in 11 genera and 2 subfamilies: Polyborinae caracaras and forest falcons and Falconinae true falcons and falconets White et al.

Revista Chilena de Ornitología

Eight species of falcons inhabit Chile: Research and reviews in Chile have mostly focused on birds of prey in general. Although only boetin 30 years of scientific research, Raimilla et al.

Two other reviews focused on one type of bird of prey. Figueroa documented a lack of research on orniotlogia natural history of Milvago chimango.

All these investigations are significant as they expose a deficiency ornitologiw information, and thus, indicate where more research is warranted, regardless of possible limitations typical to this type of studies as indicated by Bimrose et al.

Limitations may include a limited temporal scope, insufficient access to information, and the selection and classification of studies.

Our aim is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding falcons in Chile based on a comprehensive review of the literature. We identify deficiencies in temporal, thematic, geographic, and species-specific knowledge, discuss the possible causes and suggest directions for future research.

The bibliographical review consisted of an exhaustive cchileno of the ornithological literature on falcons in Chile, published between andand presented in scientific publications, national and international journals both indexed and non-indexedbooks, book chapters, and chipeno and graduate theses only those with online free access.

Relative productivity was measured and compared across time 10 year intervals beginning inspace administrative regionssubject research topicand species. However, due to the lack of literature for some topics, only 11 applied to our data set: Field manuals and monographs also fall into this category; Systematics and Taxonomy ST: Studies that present abundance data are considered in this category, as ecologic studies contemplate gathering said data along with visual observations and registries, which coincide with the most common methodologies see: Publications which did not explicitly mention the scientific or common name s of the study species were omitted from our data set.


A total of studies between and included scientific data on falcons in Chile. Relationship between different lines of investigation: Number of studies regarding the Falconidae family published in the last century from to Relative bibliographic importance according to circulation medium and researched species.

The natural history of falcons in Chile is poorly documented. Studies by QuijadaHousse ;and Barros regarding Milvago chimangoby Housse regarding Falco sparveriusand Housse a regarding Caracara plancus discuss aspects of morphology, behaviour, reproduction, development, foraging, and as well as anecdotal observations of daily activity.

Particularly, the complete ornutologia cycle of Phalcoboenus megalopterus was described by Houssewhereas data are missing for the remaining species. Figueroa analyzed the scarce literature regarding the natural history of Milvago chimango. The systematics and taxonomy of falcons have been clarified boetin Fuchs et al. They reported polyphyly of the genus Milvagoand found that Milvago chimango is part of the Phalcoboenus clade and should be transferred to this genus Fuchs et al.

The genus Falco was found to be monophyletic Fuchs et al. There is little ornitoogia regarding intraspecific variation and evolution of falcons in Chile. Falco sparverius fernandensis was described by Chapman Two subspecies of Milvago chimanago are known: Milvago chimango temucoensis Sclater is found is most of Chile Housse and Milvago chimango fuegiensis Johnson and Behnwhich is endemic in Tierra del Fuego.

The latter subspecies is no longer recognized as a valid taxon by most taxonomists e. Dickinson and Remsen McNutt established that the pale coloration in Falco peregrinus is recessive in the genotype of the species. Among PhalcoboenusPhalcoboenus megalopterus is the most widely distributed species occurring from the extreme north Hellimayr south to Magallanes Jaksic et al.

Faunistics, biodiversity, and abundance.

A reassessment on the state of knowledge of Chilean Falconidae in the last hundred years

During an extended period, only the presence or absence of species was documented without attention for abundance e. Population estimates began with general ornithofaunal observations at some locations, albeit in a non-systematic manner, which resulted in low estimates with the exception of Milvago chimango e.

CodyMarkhamAraya et al. The greatest abundance and number of species were registered in national parks ornitolgoia reserves e.

Diet and Trophic Ecology. The feeding preferences and habits of Caracara plancusFalco femoralisFalco sparverius and Milvago chimango have been described Barros Falco peregrinus is considered an opportunist McNutt and is a top predator of granivore birds Marquet et al.

The feeding habits of Falco sparverius are known in detail; it is classified as a predator of insects, reptiles Goodall et al. Falco sparverius is capable of changing its diet following the seasons Figueroa and CoralesMellaand geographic location Ellis et al. No trophic superposition between Falco femoralis and Falco sparverius has been documented in Chile Torres-MuraRau and Jaksic Observations by Figueroa et al.

Finally, Phalcoboenus australis has been described as the most important predator of Eudyptes chrysocome Forster eggs Sphenisciformes Cursach et al. Information on reproductive cycle and development is available for Falco sparveriusCaracara plancusMilvago chimangoand Phalcoboenus australis.

Nesting data on Phalcoboenus megalopterus in Chile are limited to a monograph by Houssewho presumed the species would nest in the rich vegetation areas of the mountains. Ethology, migration, and home environment. Information for this topic is fragmented across a number of brief publications and reviews. Milvago chimango is a resident species associated with highly urbanized areas Lobos et al.

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Falco sparverius and Falco peregrinus are classified as semi-residents Teneb et al. The only migrant species of falcon recorded in Chile is Falco femoralis Jaksic and Simonetti Haemosporine Forrester et al.

Escherichia coli Migula has been identified as a cause of fatal meningoencephalitis in Milvago chimango Seguel et al. The parasites described and registered in other species of falcons include Degeeriella rufa Phthiraptera: Philopteridae in Falco femoralis and Falco peregrinus ; Acutifrons megalopterus Carriker, Phthiraptera: Ischnocera and Colpocephalum megalopteri Price Phthiraptera: Menoponidae in Phalcoboenus megalopterus ; and Laemobothrion tinnunculi Phthiraptera: However, the mechanisms and processes that affect their population have not been identified.

Tala and Iriarte provide important data regarding legislation and potential threats to falcons. Study methods and techniques. Studies focusing on study methods and techniques are few. Environmental education and science outreach. The single paper on this subject Figueroa provides a plan for teaching ecology and environmental biology through the use of birds of prey, including Milvago chimango and Falco sparverius species. The results presented here show that knowledge on falcons in Chile is uneven across species, research topics and administrative regions.

Despite the limitations of this type of study, our data have the advantage of directly visualizing gaps in knowledge of specific topics Bimrose et al. Comparison to the study by Raimilla et al. Nevertheless, two clear patterns emerge from these two reviews and the present study: These patterns are not exclusive to these groups but represent a general trend in all sciences Bornmann and Mutz In contrast, Raimilla et al. Population trends in time are hampered by the fact that older studies typically represented reports of the presence of species and provided no data on abundance.

In contrast to Raimilla et al. However, in agreement with Raimilla et al. The same pattern was observed in works that focus on community structure Jaksic and continental water ed Victoriano et al. There were no studies which report on falcons in the O’Higgins region central Chile despite its proximity to the Metropolitan region.

Our review indicates that some topics remain little studied.

We suggest chilen topics warrant further study because current studies are carried out based on protocols developed for falcons in the northern hemisphere e. Bird and Bildstein which may not be optimal for research in Chile.

The lack of knowledge on the biology of species native to Chile may bolftin the application of techniques developed elsewhere for other species.

The use of non-suitable techniques may produce biases or errors and perhaps even harm captured individuals Ford Other works have presented a complete bird of prey education program, but mainly focused on birds of prey in general e. Nevertheless, both studies illustrate how birds of prey including falcons may be used to increase awareness of various environmental problems to a non-specialized audience.

Figueroa suggested that the lack of knowledge on natural history of Milvago chimango results from historical factors, a shift from field biology to other types of study, difficulties in studying diet, and perhaps changing interests of researchers.