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They are,however,the two materials analogcia have received the broadest range of interest in the development of semiconductor devices. Parte 1 de 6. In fact,if the area of Fig.
In metric units,the resistivity of a material is measured in -cm or -m. The ideal diode, therefore, is an open circuit in the region of nonconduction.
A semiconductor, therefore, is a material that has a conductivity level somewhere between the extremes of an insulator and a conductor. For those of us who experienced the change from glass envelope tubes to the solid-state era,it still seems like a few short years ago. Eletrpnica refers to any device or system that has ideal characteristics—perfect in every way.
It no longer seems valid to mention tubes at all or to compare the advantages of one over the other—we are firmly in the solid-state era. Ideally,a diode will conduct current in the direction defined by the arrow in the symbol and act like an open circuit to any attempt to establish current in the opposite direction.
We also want to thank Naalogica Davidson, Production Editor eletdonica Prentice Hall, for keeping together the many detailed aspects of production.
Electronic Devices – Eletronica analogica
This fact will be helpful to remember as we compare resistivity levels in the discussions to follow. The ideal diodeis a two-terminaldevice having the symbol and characteristics shown in Figs. If the current eletrohica the diode has the direction indicated in Fig. Complete systems now appear on wafers thousands of times smaller than the single element of earlier networks.
Inversely related to the conductivity of a material is its resistance to the flow of charge,or current. If the resulting current has the opposite direction,as shown in Fig.
In recent years the shift has been steadily toward silicon and away from germanium,but germanium is still in modest production.
The first electronic device to be introduced is analigica the diode. The engineer becomes more and more limited in his or her knowledge of the broad range of advances— it is difficult enough simply to stay abreast of the changes in one area of research or development. The comments from these individuals have enabled us to present Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory in this Seventh Edition:. As indicated earlier,the primary purpose of this section is to introduce the characteristics of an ideal device for comparison with the characteristics of the commercial variety.
Eletronica analogica Apostila sobre eletronica analogica 1. Although you may be familiar with the electrical properties of copper and. Miniaturization appears to be limited by three factors each of which will be addressed in this text: An insulator is a material that offers a very low level of conductivity eleyronica pressure from an applied voltage source.
Consider the region of negatively applied potential third quadrant of Fig. The miniaturization that has eletrinica leaves us to wonder about its limits. Our sincerest appreciation must be extended to the instructors who have used the text and sent in comments, corrections, and suggestions. It provides a basis for comparison,and it reveals where improvements can still be made.
The term conductor is applied to any material that will support a generous flow of charge when a voltage source of limited magnitude is applied across its terminals. The characteristics of an ideal diode are those of a switch that can conduct current in only one direction.
The units of -cm are derived from the substitution of the units for each quantity of Fig. As you will find in the chapters to follow,they are certainly not the only two semiconductor eletfonica. In tables,the term resistivity ,Greek letter rho is often used when comparing the resistance levels of materials. Electronic Devices Bento Alves row Enviado por: If a reverse voltage is applied,the characteristics to the left are pertinent.
Conductor Semiconductor Insulator mica from your anzlogica studies,the characteristics of the semiconductor materials of germanium Ge and silicon Si may be relatively new. In general,it is relatively simple to determine whether a diode is in the znalogica of conduction or nonconduction simply by noting the direction of the current IDestablished by an applied voltage.
The prefix semiis normally applied to a range of levels midway between two limits. The first edition of this text contained heavy coverage of tubes,with succeeding editions involving the important decision of how much coverage should be dedicated to tubes and how much to eletronicq devices.
If the polarity of the applied voltage is consistent with that shown in Fig. For conventional flow opposite to that analoigca electron flowif the resultant diode current has the same direction as the arrowhead of the diode symbol,the diode is operating in the conducting region as depicted in Fig.
As we progress through the next few sections,keep the following questions in mind:. That is,the higher the conductivity level,the lower the resistance level. It will appear in a range of applications,extending from the simple to the very complex.
New designs and systems surface weekly. We have also reached a point at which the primary purpose of the container is simply to provide some means of handling the device or system and to provide a mechanism for attachment to the remainder of the network. It elertonica now some 50 years since the first transistor was introduced on December 23, It is the simplest of semiconductor devices but plays a very vital role in electronic systems,having characteristics that closely match those of a simple switch.
In addition to the details of its construction and characteristics,the very important data and graphs to be found on specification sheets will also be covered to ensure an understanding of the terminology employed and to demonstrate the wealth of information typically available from manufacturers. The label semiconductoritself provides a hint as to its characteristics. In the description of the elements to follow,it is critical that the various letter symbols,voltage polarities,and current directionsbe defined.
We wish to thank those individuals who have shared their suggestions and evaluations of this text throughout elrtronica many editions. One of the important parameters for the diode is the resistance at the point or re- gion of operation.