Peningkatan Kualitas Bungkil Inti Sawit Dengan Fermentasi Terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Dan Kandungan Zat Makanan. The experiment was aimed to determine the effect of Palm Kernel Cake fermentation by Pleurotus ostreatus (BISF) in ration on the performance of broiler . Request PDF on ResearchGate | PENGGUNAAN BUNGKIL INTI SAWIT DAN Penggunaan Kulit Nanas Fermentasi dalam Ransum yang Mengandung Gulma .

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Experiment was assigned to Completely Randomized Design with two treatments, with fermentation and non-fermentation. Result showed that fermentation increased crude protein level of palm kernel cake from Fiber volume fraction undergoing significant increase was hemicellulose, from It was concluded that fermented Palm Kernel Cake product provided essential nutritional values for poultry hemicellulose, mannane and mannose that potentially improved poultry health.

Expansions on oil palm plantation are under constant improvement, particularly those recently developed in Kalimantan into Irian.

If Indonesia produced Low palatability of palm kernel cake on non ruminants made it necessary to supply other palatable feed. Nutritional content of PKC is varied, depending on the assigned oil extraction, storage and shredded palm kernel shell [3]; [4].

One alternative to improve feed quali- ty was solid substrate fermentation using mold that enabled degradability of indigestible material to be more available and bunvkil increased nutritional value.

The quality of fermented product depended on the type of microbes and solid media used. Most microbes including bacteria, fungi and yeast could produce various enzyme.

Products of yeast metabolism were ethanol, citric acid, acetone, butanol, glutamate acid, jnti, nucleotides, polysaccharide and vitamins [8]. PKC fermentation using Candida utilis could improve nutritional val. Sedayu- BantulIndonesia. Fermentation of palm oil sludge was the most effec- tive using Aspergillus niger at 38 o C for 3 days, following 2-day enzymatic process [12]; [13].

PKC cell wall components con- sisted of Although enzymatically beta-mannane was indigestible by poultry be- cause of the absence of mannanase enzyme, physical diges- tion occurred through beta-mannane degradation into minor form namely mannan oligosaccharide MOS or even manose.

These substances were in charge of improving poultry body immune. As prebiotic, MOS can bind with Salmonella sp bac- teria to reduce the population of pathogenic bacteria and in- crease commensal bacteria like Lactobacillus sp.

The objec- tive of this research was to evaluate the nutritional value of non-fermented palm kernel cake and palm kernel cake fer- mented using Candida utilis as mannose-enriched feed. Research apparatus included laminar, autoclave, Memmert. All chemicals namely 1,3 g KH 2 PO 4.

From ml compound, ml was taken, added two tubes to lean it, then put to aerobe shaker for hours. Mixing steps was conducted using laminar. PKC for fer- mentation was placed on plastic tray, covered with aluminum foil and aerated by punching holesthen incubated in fer- menter at 36 – 37 O C for 48 hours. The measured variables were nutrient composition crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, ash, NFE, mannose and fiber fraction cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

Proximate analy- sis with AOAC method was conducted to obtain nutrient con- tent data, while fiber fraction analysis was subject to Chesoon method[16]. The obtained data were subject to t test [17]. Nutrient Composition Chemical analysis result of palm kernel cake and the fer- mentation product showed that fermentation could increase nutritional value of palm kernel cake Table 1.


Crude protein value of fermented palm kernel cake was higher than that of non-fermented. Despite the high crude fiber, hemicellulose had increased, showing that half of crude fiber was hydrolysa- ble into simpler compound named mannose.

Average dry matter of PKC was higher than that of FPKC, demonstrating that during fermentation, organic compound was degraded into simpler compound in which water was re- leased. Microbial activity used carbohydrate as carbon source. Carbohydrate degradation was followed by releasing energy, carbon dioxide and water. The released heat caused increas- ing substrate temperature.

All organisms need energy source for living, obtained from food metabolism within the organism ecosystem [18]. Accordingly, the energy source here was car- bohydrate contained in palm kernel cake and nitrogen source was the supplemented urea.

Fermentation on PKC triggered change in feed nutrition con- tent. The increasing protein content in PKC was assumed to result from supplementation of inorganic N source urea and mineral into substrate and microbial activity that caused proper substrate degradation.

Furthermore, protein was added up inside the microbial cell. Products during growth process, besides enzyme, were extracellular enzyme protein and protein from microbial metabolism that induced the in- creasing crude protein [19]. Crude fiber in fermentation product also increased, as as- sumed to result from microbial growth that required some food substance, among which was crude fiber as substrate.

In line with Satiawiharja [20] on fermentation product, medium func- tioned as the source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. The in- creasing crude fiber in fermentation product was likely to occur from microbial growth, in which the mycelium cell wall was cellulose and the undigested part of crude fiber like hemicellu- lose by Candida utilis.

Fermentation process caused degrada- tion in certain enzymes against the indigestible materials, cel- lulose and hemicellulose for instance, into simple glucose.

In this research, the process did not occur, and might require longer period [8].

During fermentation, lipolysis occurred due to the fat consumed by the leaven for its growth some catalysis reactions induced by lipase enzyme was hydrolysis, ester- synthesis and alcoholysis [21]. By lipase enzyme activity, fat content in fermentation product decreased. This occurrence was absence in this research, as assumed due to lack of incu- bation period. It was different from observation by [5] that fat content decreased in palm kernel bungikl substrate fermented using Candida utilis.

The decreasing substrate with high fat content such as palm kernel cake showed that Candida utilis. The difference was also likely to occur due to material type and condition, and PKC extrac- tion process. The increasing ash content in FPKC was mostly due to mineral supplementation on substrate medium.

Ash was composed of Ca, Mg, P and micro.

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Living organism needs very little mineral for me- tabolism [22] and not all of them were made into new compounds, even mostly served as co-factor in enzyme activity which woud return as original mineral after enzyme reaction. Accordingly, mineral content before and after fermenasi would be detected in form of ash with the same amount.

N-free Extract NFE in fermented palm kernel cake was significantly decreasing. NFE was carbohydrate building blocks. The decreasing NFE showed the assigned carbohydrate as carbon compound in cell building synthesis. From the carbohydrate composition of palm kernel cake, en- zymes in fermentation product were mannanase, alpha- galactosidase bungkkil cellulase.


Those enzymes hydrolyzed man- nane, galactomannane and cellulose to produce simple but more carbohydrate. Carbohydrate was degraded by microbe into energy and CO 2 for the cell life to improve Candida utilis and eventually produced higher cell protein. It might due to the lack incubation period.

Mannose was one of ferkentasi hydrolysis products. Mannane physical form was molecular ribbons but more flexible and less strong compared to cellulose, straight and expandable [24].

Mannane from oil palm generally posses strong hardness, high crystalline and is water-insoluble. Mannanase enzyme excreted by Candida utilis hydrolyzed mannane into man- nose. Mannane was composed of main component of D- glucose and D-mannose. If both components was catalyzed by transfer- ase inside golgi, glucomannane would form. Fiber Volume Fraction Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content did not de- crease Table 2 because of the degradation of cellulose with limited hydrogen bridge and unsystematic space between mi- crofibrils; furthermore, crystalline cellulose was hydrolyzed and it degraded covalent bond of crystalline cellulose.

Glucose was then metabolized by microbe to induce cell growth and sec- ondary product synthesis. Accordingly, cellulose content in this research was the remaining cellulose in substrate and the one formed by the microbe as one of cell components. Lignin statistical value in fermented PKC was not significant. Lignin is resistant to chemical degradation including enzymatic. Coumaryl alcohol and synapil alcoholwere served as the precursor.

Lignin had a strong bond with polysaccharide and cell wall protein of plant, therefore the compound was indigestible during digestion. Hemicellulose molecule had bungkli chain than cel- lulose termentasi was soluble in hot acidic solution [26]. This com- pound bound with cellulose and lignin through Hydrogen Bridge.

Hemicellulose is hydrolysable non-crystal like. Hemi- cellulose hydrolysis produced pentose and hexose [5]. Two-day fermentation of palm kernel cake using Candida utilis provided the essential nutrition for poultry by increasing crude protein, hemicellulose, and mannose. Pengaruh Fermentasi dengan Candida utilis pada Bungkil Inti Kelapa Sawit terhadap komposisi kimia, energy metabo- lis dan kecernaan nutrient untuk ayam kampung.

Malaysian Society of Animal Productions. Evaluasi pemanfaatan bungkil inti sawit yang difermentasi Aspergillus nigerhidrolisat tepung bulu ayam dan suplementasi mineral Zn dalam ransum ayam pedaging.

Digitized by USU digitial library.

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Program Pascasarjana Unibraw, Malang. Peningkatan nilai gizi lumpur sawit melalui proses fer- mentasi: Pengaruh jenis kapang, suhu dan lama proses enzi- matis. Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner 3: Ilmu Ternak dan Bungmil Vol. Alternatives to con- ventional microbials in swine diets.

Solid state fermentation, A review assignment, Desertation. University of Musore, India. Review bioreactor with immobilized lipases: State of the art.

Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Ilmu Ma- kanan Ternak Dasar. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner