no mood for political or military adventurism in the region.” Britain was concerned that the. Axis forces would gain a foothold in the region or that the Levant. Hichem Djait is professor emeritus of history at University of Tunis. His work La Grande Discorde: Religion et politique dans l’Islam des origines Djaït,Hichem. It is easy to discover that the best book there is on the subject is by the brilliant Tunisian scholar, Hichem Djait: La Grande Discorde, which.

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Three years later, and there came the inevitable blowback: From the Roman Empire to the Early Medieval Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: I say this and I ask Allah’s forgiveness for me and you.

Brunnow held that the Kharijites were Bedouin Arabs or full blooded Arabs. As a result, on the Eastern front, Ali found grqnde hard to expand the state. If we meet tomorrow the Byzantines will attack our women and children and the people of Persia will attack the women and children of Mesopotamia.

Civil wars of the early Caliphates. Marwan I had previously been excluded from positions of responsibility. When Allah decides a matter, He carries it out whether His servants like it or not. The battle lasted three days. When the arbitrators grahde at Dumat al-Jandal, which lay midway between Kufa and Syria and had for that reason been selected as the place for the announcement of the decision, a series of daily meetings were arranged for them to discuss the matters in hand.

The Origins of the Islamic State: But later when Uthman declined to give lw more lands in Persia [14] [19] they felt that their status was being reduced and therefore started to cause trouble. H-Q edited by Stanley Sandler, p. Then on 29 July 11th Safarthe Mesopotamians under Ashtar’s command, the Qurra in Ali’s army, who discodde their own camp, started the fighting in earnest.


The loss of life was terrible. Timani Page 49 [2] Some modern scholars like R. Views Read Edit View history.

Retrieved from ” https: As the time for announcing the verdict approached, the people belonging to both parties assembled. This page was last edited on 26 Novemberat By now Hassan only ruled the area around Kufa. There was also continuous bloodshed of the people during these wars.

Grande discorde — Wikipédia

The Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate, but there was a cost associated with it. It was decided that the Syrians and the residents of Kufa should nominate an arbitrator, each to decide between ‘Ali and Mu’awiya. The Persians maintained an Arab satellite state of Lakhm and the Byzantine Empire maintained the Arab satellite state of Ghassan, which they used to fight each other.

So the fighting stopped. Rebellion successful, peace treaty signed; Muawiya I begins the Umayyad dynasty. Some of Ali’s supporters were also hiichem extreme in their views and considered everyone to be their enemy. Ali pardoned Aisha and her brother escorted her back to Medina. Sects started to form, among them the Sabaites named after Abdullah Ibn Saba.

After the treaty with Hassan, Muawiyah ruled for nearly 20 years most of which were spent expanding the state.

Uthman only listened to the advice of Marwan and Saeed bin Aas, and Marwan did his best to act as a barrier between Ali and Uthman. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Archived from the original on In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The Islamic caliphate expanded very quickly under Muhammad and the first three caliphs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


The other Ridda tribesmen in Kufa, in Mesopotamia, resented the special position given to the Qurra.

First Fitna

Timani Page about the writings of M. Some of the people with their tribal names as Qurra had been expelled from Kufa, for fomenting trouble and were sent to Muawiyah in Syria. Tie the copies of the Quran to the ends of the spears. The Qurra received stipends varying between 2, and 3, dirhams, while the majority of the rest of the troops received only to dirhams.

Everyone on both sides took up the cry, eager to avoid killing their fellow Muslims – except for the conspirators. If we fight tomorrow, it will be the annihilation of the Arabs and the loss of what is sacred. Hassan and Hussein were also guarding Uthman at the time. O Allah, I have looked to my people and the people of my deen and not empowered anyone. Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites.

Uthman had been besieged in his palace for 49 days before he was killed.

First Fitna – Wikipedia

They had fought under the service of his father in the Ridda wars. The Kharijites then started killing other people. He was wounded by ibn Muljam’s poison-coated hichme while prostrating in the Fajr prayer.

Every time Ali tried to negotiate the Qurra and the Sabait started wars and launched night attacks, fearing that if there was peace, then they will be arrested.

Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in