Incoterms provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade. The Incoterms rules or International Commercial terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). The Incoterms or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) relating to Incoterms is the eighth set of pre-defined international contract terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce, with the first set having.

Author: Yozshudal Kagajin
Country: Pakistan
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Video
Published (Last): 4 August 2013
Pages: 234
PDF File Size: 10.47 Mb
ePub File Size: 8.63 Mb
ISBN: 983-2-65597-432-9
Downloads: 10852
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Dizahn

If the seller is not able to organize unloading, they should consider shipping under DAP terms instead.

Incoterms® 2010

EXW – ExWorks and This term represents the seller’s minimum obligation, since he only has to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer. The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place.

This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road.

Seller bears cost, risk and responsibility for goods until made available to buyer at named place of destination. Seller delivers goods to the carrier at an agreed place, shifting risk to the buyer, but seller pays carriage and insurance to the named place of destination. Seller must clear the goods for export. While these terms do not feature in the current version of Incoterms it is possible that they may be seen in sales order contracts. Retrieved March 14, Retrieved October 13, ICC events 16 Jan The shipper is not responsible for delivery to the final destination from the port generally the buyer’s facilitiesor for buying 20110.

The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel.

The Incoterms Rules – Incoterms Explained

The seller is required to clear the goods for export. CFR – Cost and Freight and This term means the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. This term is the same as CPT with the exception that the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. Each Incoterms rule specifies: The most important consideration for DDP terms is that the seller is responsible for clearing the goods through customs in the buyer’s country, including both paying the duties and taxes, and obtaining the necessary authorizations and registrations from the authorities in that country.


This term should be used only for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport.

The seller’s obligation ends when the documents are handed over to the buyer. In a customs jurisdiction such as the European Union, this would leave the seller liable to a sales tax bill as if the goods were sold to a domestic customer. The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment.

Should the buyer wish to have more insurance protection, it will need either to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make its own extra insurance arrangements. The desire of the parties should be expressed clearly and casual adoption should be refrained.

All charges after unloading for example, Invoterm duty, taxes, customs and on-carriage are to be borne by buyer.

In an EXW shipment, the buyer is under no obligation to provide such proof to the seller, or indeed to even export the goods. Incoterms is the eighth set of pre-defined international contract terms published by the International Chamber of Commercewith the first set having been published in This term can be used for ocean transport only.

On these routed transactions, the buyer has limited obligation to provide export information to the seller. Risk passes to buyer when delivered on board the ship. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the FCA term should be used.

In many cases, the risk and cost usually goes together but it is not always the case. DAT – Delivered at Terminal: Freight transport International trade law. The seller is not responsible for unloading. This term uncoterm be used for any mode of transportation. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from differing interpretation of the rules in different countries.


If this is the case then great care must be exercised to ensure that the points at which costs and risks pass are clarified with the customer. Either the seller does not load the goods on collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export, or if the seller does load the goods, he does so at buyer’s risk and cost. The seller is responsible for origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage to the named place of destination either the final destination such as the buyer’s facilities or a port of destination.

There are thirteen different incoterms in Incoterms and FCA – Free Carrier and This term means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. This Incoterm requires that the seller delivers the goods, unloaded, at the named terminal. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal.


To receive our free information pack, simply enter your details in our enquiry form Request information pack. A commonly used term in shipping bulk commodities, such as coal, grain, dry chemicals; and where the seller either owns or has chartered their own vessel.

The parties are well advised to specify as clearly as possible the incotegm within the named incotrm of delivery, as the risk passes to the buyer at that point. CIP can be used for all modes of transport, whereas the Incoterm CIF should only be used for non-containerized sea-freight.

Seller arranges and pays cost and freight to the named destination port.