NAME: Kyasanur forest disease virus. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Kyasanur forest disease (KFD), KFDV, and monkey fever/disease(1,2,3). Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) is a re- emerging zoonotic disease associated with sudden onset of high grade fever, prostration, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic ( constant presence of disease) in Karnataka State, India.
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Kyasanur forest disease KFD is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic dlsease presence of disease in Karnataka State, India.
It is also referred as monkey fever by local people.
Kyasanur Forest disease
The virus causing the disease: KFDV was first identified inwhen an illness occurred in monkeys the black faced langur and the red faced bonnet monkey in Kyasanur Forest area of Shimoga district, Karnataka State along with febrile illness and few deaths in humans in neighborhood area Sagar taluk of Shimoga district.
Initially the disease was limited to three taluks Sagar, Shikaripur and Sorab of the Shimoga district of Karnataka.
Duringdiseasee was reported from new districts and new states in India: InThirthahalli taluk of Shimoga district, Karnataka reported an outbreak. The increase in number of new foci and cases indicates that ecobiological changes due to deforestation and use of new land for farming and cattle grazing could lead to spread of KFD virus to newer geographical areas.
The incubation period of KFD is about 2 to 7 kyaanur after tick bites or exposure. The onset of symptoms is sudden, with chills, frontal headache, severe myalgia followed by fever. The increase in temperature is continuous and lasts for days or even longer. Muscle pains occur at the nape of the neck, lumbar region and calf muscles.
Kyasanur Forest disease – Wikipedia
Gastrointestinal symptoms as diarrhoea and vomiting may occur at third kyazanur fourth day of illness. Patient may feel photophobia discomfort in the eyes due to light exposure. Physical examination fkrest enlargement of cervical lymph nodes and papulovesicular lesions on the soft palate.
Most of the patients recover without any complications after one to two weeks of symptoms. In few patients the disease runs a biphasic course; the second phase starts in the third week of illness after a febrile period of one to two weeks. It is characterized by return of fever and neurological symptoms as headache, neck stiffness, mental disturbance, coarse tremors, giddiness, and abnormality of reflexes.
It is antigenically dissease to other tick-borne flaviviruses and resembling Russian spring—summer RSS complex of viruses. Human to human transmission is not known.
Natural hosts and reservoirs – Small mammals particularly rats and squirrels are main reservoir of the virus. Monkeys act as amplifying hosts for the virus and disseminate the infection, but most of them die from KFD infection.
Cattle maintain tick population by providing them blood meal but play no part in virus maintenance. Man is incidental or dead dsease host, and plays no role in viral transmission. Vectors – Hard Ticks of genus Haemaphysalis transmit the disease.
Humans become infected through the bite of infected unfed nymphs when they pass through the fprest. Adult ticks feed on large animals like cattle.
These large animals are good hosts for proliferation of ticks but are not significant for virus dissemination due to insignificant viremia presence of virus in blood in them. Ticks also transmit this virus transstadially from one life stage to next thus also acts as reservoir for the virus. Adult fed female tick lays eggs on the ground, which hatch to larvae under the vegetations. The larvae further infest and feed on small mammals and monkeys, drop on the ground and change into nymphs.
Nymphs feed on small mammals, birds, as well as accidentally infesting humansdrop on the ground and mature in to adults. Adult ticks usually feed and mate on large animals such as cattle, monkeys.
Such type of ticks, feeding on three different hosts is called three-host ticks, one each for the larval, nymphal, and adult life stages. The disease should be differentiated from other diseases such as influenza, typhoid, dengue, malaria, leptospirosis, rickettsial group of fevers. The following tests should be performed on blood samples:. Management of disease is mainly supportive in the form of maintenance of the hydration and measures to prevent and control bleeding disorders and neurological complications.
Hemorrhagic manifestationsincluding intermittent epistaxis, haematemesis, melena, and frank blood in the stools. Neurological complications may occur due to meningoencephalitis. Symptoms include headache, neck stiffness, mental disturbance, coarse tremors, giddiness, and abnormality of reflexes.
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Mode of transmission of KFD virus: Risk factors- People with occupational or recreational exposure to rural or outdoor settings e. In Karnataka more cases are myasanur during the dry season, from November to June. This could be correlated with the increased activity of nymphs during November to May in this area.
The following tests should be performed on blood samples: Real-time RT-PCR, can detect the virus in human samples after onset of febrile illness up to the 10th day of illness. KFDV can be isolated from the blood of patients in acute phase, two to five days of symptoms onsetpositive tick pools, or the blood or viscera of monkeys by inoculation into animal or culture. There is no specific treatment for KFD.
Additional preventive measures include insect repellents and wearing protective clothing wear light coloured clothing with a long-sleeved shirt tucked into pants and long-legged pants tucked into socks and gum boots while going in KFD endemic forest areas.
Person should examine their bodies at the end of each day for ticks and remove them promptly. Sitting or lying down on the ground should be discouraged by providing health education to villagers diseqse tourists in KFD endemic areas. The use of spray insecticides has been recommended in a meter radius around a dead monkey.
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